Anapana Sati

Anapana-sati Meditation

The following simple meditation is drawn from the well of Theravada Buddhism, which is the oldest surviving form of Buddhism. The meditation is called Anapanasati: Anapana means inhalation/exhalation, while sati means mindfulness, and so the meditation is no more than mindfulness of the breath. Seeing as we all share the breath in common it is a meditation that can be performed by anyone, at anytime, and anywhere. You don’t need to go to the shop to buy anything and you don’t need to find a teacher, you are the only instrument you need. The Buddha promised his devotees that mindfulness of the breath, “developed and repeatedly practiced, is of great fruit, great benefit.” Anapanasati is the meditation that Buddha practiced as he sat underneath the Bodhi tree and realised his own enlightenment, and so it is the method that he stressed the most to his followers, and is the core meditation practice in Theravada Buddhism.

The Buddha’s teachings of this meditation can be found in the Mahasatipatthana Sutta (The Greater Discourse on Foundations of Mindfulness). In it he says: “A monk, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs cross-wise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, at the tip of his nose, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out. Breathing in long, he knows: ‘I breathe in long’; or breathing out long, he knows: ‘I breathe out long.’ Breathing in short, he knows: ‘I breathe in short’; or breathing out short, he knows: ‘I breathe out short.’; thus he trains himself.”

And now you have read the Buddha’s own words on this meditation practice; I will elaborate on his instructions slightly:

1. Find a quiet place where you will be alone and undisturbed, the Buddha recommends finding shelter under a tree, as nature is the perfect environment for cultivating a meditative state, but anywhere quiet will do. Find a place in your home where you can regularly conduct your meditation.

2. Place a small pillow on the floor, or a folded blanket, and sit on it with cross legs. You can either sit in half lotus or full lotus position. Half lotus position is when you sit cross legged, with your right foot placed gently on your left thigh, or your left foot placed gently on your right thigh; it is easier to perform than full lotus, but doesn’t offer as much support. Full lotus requires you to place your right foot on your left thigh, and your left foot on your right thigh – the result is your whole body should feel locked in place, and the position will naturally erect your spine almost as though you are sitting in an imaginary chair.

3. Place your hands in your lap, the right hand cupped underneath the left one, with both your thumbs touching and pointing up towards your chin. Close your eyes and imagine yourself as being a mountain or pyramid, unmovable and still – embody these qualities. Next breathe in three deep and forced breaths.

4. Continue breathing after these three breaths, at any tempo or intensity as is natural to you, all the while fixing your attention on the tip of your nostrils. Your mind always needs a mental object to focus on, and seeing as the breath is always available to us, always breathing in and out, we use that as our mental object and focus on nothing but that. Other thoughts will arise, but we simply dismiss them and continue on with the breath. This is surprisingly difficult at first, very difficult, but what we are doing is training ourselves to develop a deep level of concentration, where we can focus on one thing (the breath) and nothing else. Eventually waves of bliss will follow, but we simply ignore these and continue with the breath.

5. Imagine your nostrils as a gate, and in your meditation you become the gate keeper. Just as a gatekeeper examines each person entering and leaving the city only as he passes through the gate, without following him inside or outside the city, so the meditator should be aware of each breath only as it passes through the nostrils, without following it inside or outside the body. The gate keeper remains at the gate both physically and metaphorically at all times. A gatekeeper also does not discriminate a visitor based on whether they are short, or tall, or skinny or fat, they simply note their appearance and let them enter and leave, so too we should not discriminate between any types of breath. All breaths are good; if our breathing is deep and heavy we just note it, and continue, if it is short and light, we notice it and continue. This is the goal of anapanasati meditation.

For beginners it may be extremely difficult to focus just on the breath, and so it may be useful to incorporate counting along with the breath. For each inhale/exhale we mentally count 1, and we continue till we reach 10, and then from 10 back to 1. Repeat this until you are confident you can continue watching the breath without the help of counting numbers. If your mind begins to wander then see it as an opportunity to bring your awareness back to your breath, don’t get frustrated with yourself, just go back to the breath. Every time you successfully leave a train of thought, no matter how important it appears to be at the moment, you will train yourself to cultivate a clear state of mind, and eventually you will be able to enter meditative states almost instantly.

A common analogy used in India is that of a elephant and its trainer, our mind is analogous to a wild elephant – not completely under our control. And so the elephant trainer chains the elephant up in order to train it; the elephant goes crazy with rage and pulls against the chain, cutting into it’s legs in the process. Eventually the elephant realises it cannot break free, and will suffer less if it remains still, and so the elephant is trained. Our minds are like this when we begin to meditate, they do everything in their power to break the silent chain wrapped around them and they do this by exploding with thoughts. Your job is not to tend to each of these thoughts, this is what you have spent your whole life doing, you are meditating to free yourself from these thoughts, because thoughts manifest and you are what you think. The only way to liberate your mind is to abandon your thoughts as they are traps along the way, leading nowhere important.

Another analogy for meditation is that of a muddy lake: the lake, when disturbed by rain, becomes full of tiny grains of dirt and silt that gives the lake a muddy appearance. In time, however, the dirt and silt slowly drops to the lakes floor, and then the lake becomes as clear as the sky above it. If your mind was a glass of water, then a handful of dirt poured into that water would be your thoughts, and every time you think you are effectively shaking the glass. When you meditate the objective is not the shake the glass but to let it sit still so your mind can become completely clear. Practice this meditation daily, for at least 20 minutes, either first thing when you wake up, or last thing before you go to bed.

Here is a transcript of a guided Anapanasati meditation by Ram Dass, that may help you better understand the process.




12 responses to “Anapana-sati Meditation”

  1. rogero Avatar

    Good simply instructions. Keep up the good work … the more the merrier, so to speak.
    cheers Roger

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  3. JP Avatar

    You explain this type of meditation really well, man. As someone who has never understood exactly how meditating is supposed to work, and why it might be beneficial, I’ve always been weary of trying it. Thanks for the enlightenment.

    1. endofthegame Avatar

      Anytime mate! If you need any more help feel free to ask. But it’s one of those things that you should spend less time ‘thinking’ about and more time doing. It’s a whole lot harder than it sounds, but you have to train yourself.. The result is a mind that feels noticeably lighter and clearer as it is slowly released from years and years of being a slave to all your thoughts – your mind is capable of much more when it realises that thoughts serve it, and not the other way around.

  4. regotron Avatar

    Well described, man.. Anapana is the preliminary training for the great practice of Vipassana.. On a ten day course pretty much the first 3 days are spent concentrating the mind on the breath – it’s amazing how wily your mind is with distractions – but you get through it with persistence! I definitely recommend giving both of these a go if you want to expand your inner horizons..

  5. Pavani Avatar

    Once i start meditating and as the practice goes I always have this overwhelming urge to cry.. and many times tears even start flowing.. Surprisingly I don’t feel any happiness or sadness.. its just tears flow… Can anyone answer me why exactly it happens??

    1. js Avatar

      The purpose of Buddhist meditation is not seeking the peaceful mental status or “happiness” as gurus and monks in West propagate. It is one way to help people see the world (establish the right world view) and be aware of the world without attaching to /being obsessed with it. What is the right world view? 1) the world/everything, including our mind, is always changing. 2) Nothing, including our mind and the Buddha’s teaching, has independent essence. Things are there for causes and under conditions. 3) Nirvana: We can go beyond life and death only when live in life and death. We can have the wisdom of avoiding suffering only when we are human beings, ie, living in suffering. The Buddha didn’t teach people to look for alternative reality, god, or miracles. Enlightenment happens at this moment, every moment when one sees the world as it is. Meditation can help one realize the “self” is sets of aggregates of senses, thoughts, emotions, desires, and memories, which are changing every second, so in this sense it is an illusion – proved by neuroscience. There are no “things” only “changes” if we can push the idae to extreme. Since it is an illusion, we shouldn’t be obsessed with it, shouldn’t always grasping and grabbing (greed for things, people, emotion, past, future, etc.), shouldn’t get angry easily (aversion), shouldn’t get fooled (arrogance, thinking we know). But non-self does not deny the self as a real – convenient/smart illusion that is necessary for our survival. Colors are illusions because only our particular senses and brain processing can detect/create them in certain ways but they are crucial to our survival and we attach meanings to them.

      So I don’t think you need to worry at all that you are not experiencing “happiness” in medication. Seeking for and trying to stay in particular feeling is greed/craving that we need to get rid of. As meditation/sitting has an end, seeking peace or anything in it will only keep one in trap. Just be aware and observe how feelings/sensations/thoughts come and go. Let go. Let them come. Remember it is the right view of the world that is really helpful, not temporary or permanent escape from the life we have. Enlightenment is the middle path. Enlightenment is to eventually realize there is no such thing called enlightenment. What a release.

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  7. hemantha Avatar

    Dhamma is not something to talk about, it’s something to do, and the teacher only encourages the disciple to discover the truth for themselves through constant reflection and meditation. This truth is not found in India, China, Tibet or Japan or in any monastery or Dhamma hall, any more than it is found in your own bedroom at home. Our journey is always an internal journey voyaging deeper and deeper to the source of our unhappiness.
    So the instruction is always simple: Just make the practice, but don’t get lost!
    Don’t hold on to anything, and don’t push anything away. Be with things as they are and allow everything to show you the truth. The true teachers are not outside you, they are arising in every moment. These thoughts, moods, feelings and emotions, arising and passing away. Let their impermanence and their emptiness lead you to true understanding and peace.
    May all beings be happy.

  8. Tim Avatar

    Where does all the nostril-gate stuff come from ?
    I dont see that in the original text translations

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